Introduction

According to Derwing, Rossiter, & Munro, 2002, The business of blood banking has become a complex balance of safety and efficiency As they strive to protect patient’s health and deliver safe blood and components to the right person. The term “blood bank” refers to a division of a laboratory where the storage of blood product occurs and where proper testing is performed to reduce the risk of transfusion related events.

Despite advances in technology, today’s blood bank systems are running in manual system. As such, there is a  prevalent   problem  in the availability of needed   blood   types.  For instance,when a person needs a certain type of blood and this type is not available in the hospital, family members send messages through social media to those who can donate to them and this process takes longer. “The process of managing the blood bag that is received from the blood donation events needs a proper and systematic management” says.  Danilo L. Mejica, H. K. (2004)

Background of the study

The PNRC was established in 1947, with roots in the Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire. It was initially involved only in the provision of blood and short-term palliatives as well as participation in disaster-related activities but they now focus on a wider array of humanitarian services. At present, the PRC provides six major services: National Blood Services, Disaster Management Services, Safety Services, Health Services, Welfare Services and Red Cross Youth.

The development of Web-based Online Blood Bank Management System (BBMS) is proposed to provide a management functional to the blood bank in order to handle the blood supply of Philippine National Red Cross Bacolod Chapter. From this system, there are several type of reports that can be generated such as blood stock Inventory, List of donors and the total of blood transactions according to months and year of order.

Statement of the Objectives

This study aims to design and develop a system for Philippine National Red Cross Bacolod. Which will help cater the Blood Donors, and Blood Seekers/Patients. This system will help in automating the storage of Blood Bags and Inventory for future use.

Specifically this system aims to:

  1. Design and develop a Web-based Online system that can:
  2. Provide an Online Management System wherein the Donors can print there own Blood Donor Record Card.
  3. Allows Users to Process Blood Processing Transaction.
  4. Allows Users to view the Availability of Blood.
  5. Evaluate the acceptability of the system using the adopted survey instrument based on ISO/IEC 9126 in terms of Effectiveness, Efficiency, Quality, Timeliness, and Productivity.
  6. Prepare an implementation plan for the deployment of the PNRC BBMS.

Conceptual Framework

The coneceptual framework of this system shows and indicates the flow of the system and helps the users and all the readers understand how it will be processed or functioned. This study is intended to improve the existence of a manual way of Storing Blood Thru Philippine National Red Cross Bacolod City Chapter in order to have a more efficient outcome.

Conceptual Framework

Conceptual Framework

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

Scope

This Automated system caters the Philippine Red Cross Bacolod City Chapter. This system is capable of adding a new Blood Donor Walk in/Online, Can add a Indigent List for less privelage Patients. Blood Seekers can Search Availability of Blood Stock thru Online. They can also see Upcoming Events and Schedules of PNRC-Bacolod. Capable of Storing Blood Bags via Serial numbers. It Can generate Inventory. Provides Queing System for Walk in Patient/Processing Individual. Blood Seekers can acquire a needed Blood Type thru PNRC-Blood bank management System Transaction. None registered donor can scehdule a blood replacement. This system also generates a Blood Donors Report, Inventory Reports, and Transaction Reports. With all this features of the system it will help it will simplfy the workflow of the Philippine National Red Cross and also the Donors and Blood Seekers will benefit from this.

 

Delimitation

This system is designed only for Philippine National Red Cross Bacolod it doesn’t cover any Blood Banking institutions. This system cannot Notify Receptients/Patients Via Text or Email who is Scheduled for Blood Replacement. The Indigents Program is not available in this system. This system is exclusive only for Blood storage and Managing Informations, Blood Testing and other Blood Processing Activities is not included in this System. For testing of this system the propents can only use Laptop to test and determine the usability of the system.

Significance of the Study

The study is intended to various set of people who could benefit in the system. The result of this study will be beneficial to the following.

Admin of Philippine National Red Cross

          Improves its services in terms of Blood Donation and Blood Distribution by the use of this system. Also improves his/her technical ability in means of managing Blood Storage and Distribution.

Staffs

          Thru this system the staff can have a more systematic way of entertaining Blood Seeker or Patient thru a Queuing System which is more organized.

Donor

          This system will enable the donors donate blood and storage in a more organized Manner. This enables them to check on where the Next events or Blood Donation Camps of Red Cross Bacolod.

 

Blood Seekers/Patients

This system aims to provide the Blood seekers or Patients a more convenient way on seeking blood. Blood Seekers or Patients can update and check of the information of a certain Blood group available on the Blood Bank.

Future Researchers

          This system may provide basis to the future researchers who may experience a related system. In addition, can give them information that is updated and highly commendable.

Definition of Terms

Admin Conceptually, the terms refers to the act or process of administering, especially the management of a large institution or Organization.

(Wordnik, 2018)

          In this study the term refers to the person managing the system of the Red Cross Bacolod.

 

Donors Conceptually, A donor in general is a person, organization or government which donates something voluntarily. The term is usually used to represent a form of pure altruism.

(Wiley-Blackwell Journals, 2014)

In this study, the term refers to the people who uses the system of the PNRC-BACOLOD Blood Bank Management System who visit the site for Updates and Upcoming Events.

Bloodseekers/Patients Conceptually, A seeker is someone who is looking for or trying to get a available Blood Bag for Replacement or Use.

(Business Week, 2016)

In this study Bloodseekers/Patients is the one who uses the system for Blood Searching and Checking Blood stock Availability and Inventory.

 

Blood Bank  Conceptually, a place where blood is collected from donors, typed, separated into components, stored, and prepared for transfusion to recipients. A blood bank may be a separate free-standing facility or part of a larger laboratory in a hospital. (Timmermans, S., & Almeling, R. (2009)

          In this study Blood Bank is where the Serial numbers of Blood Bags is being registered for the Bloodseekers or Patients to see.

Data Conceptually, the term refers to an information that has been translated into a form that is efficient for a movement or processing.

(Rouse, 2018)

          In this study, the term refers to the needed inputs in order for some features of the system to run or operate.

Blood Types Conceptually, An inherited feature on the surface of the red blood cells. A series of related blood types constitutes a blood group system, such as the Rh or ABO system.

(Cambridge Dictionary of Sociology, 2010)

In this study, it refers to the Different Blood Types that is available on the system which will be choosen by the User.

Automation Conceptually, automation are subsequently described and finally computer-integrated manufacturing, today’s highest level of automation is explained. In addition, historical events in mechanization and industrial automation (KatsundoHitomi, 2001)

In this study, it refers to upgrading the manual process of PNRC-Bacolod in Blood storage and Releasing.

Review Of Related Literature

This Chapter discusses the existing study into the context of proceeding related research. This research study cited articles and systems, which are pragmatic are based on research and design of the developer to meet the users needs.

Inventory Costing System for Selected Hospitals

Inventory is defined as a detailed, itemized list, report, or record of things in one’s possession, especially a periodic survey of all goods and materials in stock. Inventories are essential for medicinal merchandising and manufacturing .The main function of this system is to control and project the number of items and Medicines. Like in our system the Inventory is the main function because it’s the one who controls the Blood Stock and Availability for future use (“SynergySuite”. 2008).

 

Transaction for Co-management System

The systems and methods described herein relate to a system for documenting transactions of every Patients. This systems provide administrative support and let

users configure, monitor, and manage their transactions in the Medical Institution. Relating to our system the transaction process is linking multiple individuals operations in a single, invisible transaction that ensures that either all operations in a transaction are completed

(“BeckersHospitalReview”.2007)

 

Hospital Blood Stock Inventory System

To analyse the Issuable Stock Index (days worth of stock) for Hospitals and Clinic and wastage in relation to data continuously collected by the Blood Stocks Management Scheme (BSMS) keeping precised and updated inventory records for medicines & surgical equipment is the most important task of this system so that it can deliver a precise service to the patients. Likewise in our system the blood bag is being monitored well which in return will be given to blood seekers (“Scielo.Br” 2009).

 

Automated Network Facsimile Queuing

A plurarity of multifunction devices each having a function are connected together in a networking arrangement. The job of this system is to provide a more systematic and effective flow of giving individuals Medical Records and Datas. In similar with our Blood Bank Management System the queuing also serves as the function device where the Blood Seekers get a number for them to process Blood Transaction.

(“Q.Matic”.2003).

 

Clinical Records System with RFID Tags

          An inventory control system for Patients Records, such as Medical. Dental, or other records related to specific Patients it uses RFID tags attached to each records. Each tag has a unique identification or serial number for identifying the individuals Medical Records. An inventory database tracks all of the tagged documents and maintains circulation status information for each Documents. In our system also the main function of Inventory management is to identify the number of Blood Bags that is being bought and received by Patients also it can store the records of every transaction (“ClinicTracker”.2001)

Hierarchal Storage Management System

          A hierarchical storage management system for database management systems of medical institutions that divides a database logically into separately managed regions, with each region being described by an entry in a vector kept in a regions file. The region entry contains a time stamp of the last time the region was accessed, the staging identifier of the region if it has been migrated. In our system the management of storage is being done to properly update the number of Blood Bags remaining in the Blood Bank (“BizFluent”2004).

Related Systems

Related System

Related System

Table 1 shows features of the proposed systems in the first column, whereares the following columns are the features of the related systems.

Synthesis

The system that was presented were obtained from both foreign and local system study that were made basis for the developed information system. It has also described the features that are available and unavailable in the system.

All the related systems presented, share similar nature to the study, the Inventory system, Transaction processing system, and Queuing system all this features is also present to our system which is the Philippine National Red Cross Blood Bank Management System.

The system discussed are correlated to the proponents system by means of functionalities and their processes, The researchers analyzed accurately and evaluated the related system based on its modules and its functions.

The related system has made the proponents realized some functions and factors that would help the proposed system to be more advanced, accurate, and effective for the users. Furthermore, the proponents acquire some features in the related studies and merged it to the system to be more beneficial to the Organization.

Methodology

This chapter discusses the research strategy, procedures, and the system flows and its phases.

Software Development Lifecycle

Tatva (2013) states that Rapid Application Development (RAD) is an effective methodology to provide much quicker development and higher-quality results than those achieved with the other software development methodologies. It is designed in such a way that, it easily take the maximum advantages of the software development. The main objective of this methodology is to accelerate the entire software development process. The goal is easily achievable because it allows active user participation in the development process. The Rapid Application Development Model is broken down into different phase. Basic phase of Rapid Application Development are as follows: Analysis, Prototyping, Testing and Implementation phase.

Rapid Development

Rapid Development

Figure 2 Rapid Application Development

Analysis phase

During this initial stage, after we selected our team members. The Researchers assigned tasks and assignments to each other. After the researchers did their brainstorming about the title of the system, they did the interviews and surveys to the Philippine National Red Cross. Here, they also sought for some related studies of the system.

Prototyping Cycle Phase

Build- The programer starts to code and build the system that meets the functionalities of Philippine National Red Cross Blood Bank Management System.

Demonstrate- The proponents demonstrate the function of the system that will meet the requirements on how to improve the managing process.

Refine- In this cycle the proponents is already done and is being polished.

Testing Phase

In this phase the proponents tested the functionalities of the system to determine if the system worked according to its goal. The team invited the Staffs of Red Cross Bacolod for them to see how the system works and get their feedbacks from it.

Implementation Phase

In this phase the system is already developed and organized. The system also is already been tested and the purpose has been proven effective.

Program Environment

Front End

BOOTSTRAP

          Bootstrap is an open source toolkit for developing with HTML, CSS

and JS. Quickly prototype your ideas or build your entire app with Sass Variables and mixins, responsive grade system, extensive prebuilt components, and powerful plugins built on Jquery. (Wama Software, n.d.) this toolkit helps us to develop our System’s frontend for the users to navigate and use.

Back End

PHP.

          Is the language we used in developing our system in order to be used by the Red Cross Bacolod. The php serves as the language script of the program to perform the specific requirements in developing this system. With the help of these language we can make the system more effective.

Technical Feasibility

Table 2 Hardware Specification

Hardware Speification

Hardware Speification

Table 3 Software Specification

Software Specification

Software Specification

Architechural Diagram

Figure 3 displays the structural design of the system wherein the admin has all the access in the system like add, edit, delete, and generate reports. However, the Staff are in charge in adding and updating their record in their transaction which is to be approved first by the admin to generate reports.

Architectural Diagram

Architectural Diagram

Figure 3. Architectural Diagram of PNRC-Bacolod Blood Bank Management System

Feasibility Schedule

The feasibility Schedule contains the record of the amount of time the proponents spent on the system.

Gantt Chart

          The following tables show the Gantt Chart of the tasks that have been done by the proponents with the time alloted for the establishment of the Entire system.

Work Breakdown

Table 4. Table 4 shows the Requirement Planning phase of Blood Bank Management System

Work Breakdown

Work Breakdown

Table 5 Table 5 Shows the prototyping phase of Blood Bank  System

Prototyping Phase

Prototyping Phase

Table 6 Table 6 shows the testing phase of Blood Bank Management System

Testing Phase

Testing Phase

Table 7 Table 7 shows the Implementation phase of Blood Bank Management System

Implementation Phase

Implementation Phase

Table 8 Table 8 Shows the software Development Phase of the researched system

Development Phase

Development Phase

Cost Benefit Analysis

Cost Benefit Analysis or the CBA is a process wherein business decisions are analyzed based on others Cost. The benefits of a business-

related action are summed and the costs associated with taking that action are subtracted to determine whether the company can benefit from the system.

 

Table 9 Development Cost

Development Cost

Development Cost

Table 9 shows the Development cost of the researched system. According to https://www.payscale.com/which is a compensation software and data company and Based on the PLDT Homepage listed above is the Cost of Programmers, Analyst, Computer Set and the Internet Service alike.

Table 10. Operational Cost

Operational Cost

Operational Cost

Table 10 Shows the Operational Cost of the Researched system. This operational cost is based on the current update of Computereconomics Article which is shown in our table above. This amount will help in making the operation of the system more systematic.

Table 11 Total Cost

Total Cost

Total Cost

Table 11 shows the total cost of the researched system annually with a total of 203,811.65 this amount will help our system in giving a much more productive level of service to the users and also to meet its specified goal.

Benefits of the System (Annually)  Amount/Value

Table 12 Benefits of the system

Benefits of System

Benefits of System

Table 12 shows the computed amount of the Benefits of the system Annually/Yearly with this amount the sytem will have a great performance in terms of giving the users an effective system which will cater their needs and achieve the goals the specified system.

Table 13 Cost Benefit Analysis (Proposed)

Cost Benefit Analysis

Cost Benefit Analysis

Table 13 showed the Cost and Benefit of the proposed system which has a result 57% for Return of Investment a payback period of 2.2854 for 2 years, 3months, and 13 days, it only means that the system will have a positive outcome. This result gives us opportunity to deal into specifics about what will be spent to launch a product or to invest to. This Cost   And Benefit result can greatly benefit the organization, even though it’s often impossible to fully predict every expense will incur.

Use Case Diagram

Figure 4 Shows the activity of the admin and the authorized personnel in the system. The admin can access all the Datas that the system provides. Staff can also access the system to process transactions and Inventory stocks.

Use Case Diagram

Use Case Diagram

Context Diagram

Context Diagram

Context Diagram

Figure 5 Context Diagram of Philippine National Red Cross Blood Bank Management System

Data Flow Diagram

The flow of the system begins when the admin will log.in and process the Donors Records and  Data as well as processing the transaction. By the time the reports are encoded, it will automatically be saved into the database and can be printed. Then, the admin generates reports of Transaction, inventory and every Blood Donors.

Data Flow Diagram Admin

Data Flow Diagram Admin

Figure 6 Data Flow Diagram (ADMIN)

Data Flow Diagram Staff jpg

Data Flow Diagram Staff

FIGURE 7 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM (STAFF)

ERD Model

Entity Relationship Diagram explains every Relationship between table’s entity and attributes. Each table has a definition that connects every table, both its primary key and foreign key. Use foreign key if the attributes of the one table have a unique id and foreign key will be identified when the other attributes are in the other table. Each attributes connects in performing every process.

ERD

ERD

Figure 8 Entity Relationship Diagram

Data Dictionary

Table 14 Donors record Table

Donors Record Table

Donors Record Table

Table 15 List of Serial Numbers

List of Serial Numbers

List of Serial Numbers

Table 16 Blood Pricing

Blood Pricing

Blood Pricing

Presentation, Analysis, And Presentation Of Data

This Chapter exhibits the results of the User’s Acceptance Survey conducted for the system to the Red Cross Bacolod Administrator and Staffs

Presentation

The proponents demonstrate the system’s functionality to the randomly selected respondents. The proponents observed the respondents on how they respond to the system. The respondents were evaluated using the User Acceptance Survey in order for the respondents to distinguish the level of acceptability of the proposed system.

Data Analysis

This section presents the analysis of the data collected and gathered from the respondents of the Red Cross Bacolod Admin, and Staffs, Donors and Patients.

Characteristics of the Respondents

Table 17 Characteristics of the Respondents

Characteristics of Respondents

Characteristics of Respondents

The table 17 Shows the characteristics of the respondents the population is composed of the Red Cross Bacolod Administrator, Physician in Charge, Pathologist, Medical Technologist,

Blood Donors, and Blood Seekers. The researchers got a total number of 30 respondents.

Participants of the Study

The population of the study was determined using purposive sampling with 30 identified participants intended for the system which is comprised of Administrator, Physician in Charge, Pathologist, Medical Technologists, Donors, and BloodSeekers. This was supported by Edralin (2002) which states that “selection” of key informants is based on predetermined set of criteria.

Interpretation of Data

                 Range of mean           Verbal Interpretation

4.21-5.00                  VERY SATISFIED

3.41-4.20                     SATISFIED

2.61-3.40                     DISSATISFIED

1.81-2.60                  VERY DISSATISFIED

The adopted survey instrument determined the acceptability of the system in terms of five (5) categories namely: Effectiveness, Efficiency, Quality, Timeliness, and Productivity. The first category was composed of four (4) items, the second category was composed of three (3) items, and the third, and fourth and last categories were composed of four (4) items.

Effectiveness

Table 18 Result of Effectiveness

Effectiveness

Effectiveness

Table 18 shows that the users survey result for the effectiveness of the system came back with a total mean  of 4.14 and a Standard Deviation of

2.03 which is interpreted as “Satisfied” which means that the end-users  were satisfied with the systems effectiveness after testing it.

The respondents stated that the proposed system (PNRC-BBMS) meet the desired result and it produced the desired output . They also  stated that the system has the functionalities that is needed in the organization.

Efficiency

Table 19 Survey Result – Efficiency

Efficiency

Efficiency

Table 19 shows the survey result for Efficiency and the result for the system’s efficiency came back with the total mean of 4.44 and a standard deviation of 2.10 which interpreted that the users were “Very Satisfied” with the efficiency of the system after testing it.

The respondents stated that the system (PNRC BBMS), has the ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, and time in generating and recording reports. In a moral general sense, the system (PNRC BBMS), has the ability to do things well, successfully, and without waste.

 

Quality

Table 20 Survey Result- Quality

Quality

Quality

Table 20 shows the result of Quality and the result for the system’s quality came back with a total mean of 4.21 and a standard deviatione which interpreted that the users were “Very Satisfied”with the system’s quality after testing it.

The respondents stated that the system (PNRC-BBMS), meet the standards of the users in terms of its degree of excellence.

 

Timeliness

Table 21 Survey Result- Timeliness

Timeliness

Timeliness

Table 21 shows the result of timeliness and the survey result for the system’s Timeliness came back with a total mean of 4.08 and a Standard Deviation of 2.02 which interpreted that the user’s were “Satisfied” with the system’s timeliness after testing it.

The respondents stated that the (PNRC-BBMS), has the quality in generating and recording statistical reports in favorable or useful time.

Productivity

Table 22 Survey result- Productivity

Productivity

Productivity

Table 22 shows that the user’s survey result for the system’s Productivity came back with a total mean of 4.23 and a standard deviation of 2.05 which interpreted that the users were “Very Satisfied” with the systems Productivity after testing it.

The respondents stated that the system (PNRC BBMS) has the ability to produce a desired result. They measured the ratio of output to inputs used in a production process, i.e. output per unit input.

Over all

Table 23 Survey Result- Over All

Over all

Over all

Table 23 shows the Overall table calculation categories of the system’s

Acceptability and It resulted to 4.23 as “Very Satisfied” and a Standard Deviation of 2.05 which means that the users were very pleased with how the system had functioned in all categories given.

Summary Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendation

This Chapter presents the summary of the findings, and the conclusions and the recommendations for the system study.

Summary of Findings

Based on the objectives of the study the following results were accomplished:

  1. This study focuses on the designing and developing a Web-Based online system for the Philippine National Red Cross Bacolod that capable to check the Blood Availability, Schedule of Events, the donor can register thru Online. Blood Inventory, Blood Processing Transaction and lastly, a Queuing System.
  2. The level of acceptability of Philippine National Red Cross Blood Bank Management System in terms of Effectiveness, Efficiency, Quality, Timeliness and Productivity was evaluated by the Admin, Physcian in Charge, Pathologist, Medical Technologists, Blood Donors, and Blood Seekers and obtained a total interpretation of  “Very Satisfied”.
  3. Provide an Implementation plan for the Implementation of the System to further help the admin and staffs to use and navigate the processes of the system in order for them to deliver a quality service to the Donors and to the BloodSeekers/Patients alike.

Conclusion

Based on the summary of findings, the following conclusion were drawn:

1.Philippine National Red Cross Blood Bank Management System is fully functional and  effective for checking the Blood Availability, Posting of Schedule of Events, Donor registration Online and Effective  Blood Inventory, Efficient Blood Processing Transaction and lastly, Queuing.

  1. The methodology that being used Rapid Application development is useful in terms of the time being spent in developing the system, Each prototypes undergoes a separate phases and all components are finally winded together to create the final application. This ensured the fast delivery of the software with lesser bugs.
  1. Philippine National Red Cross Blood Bank Management System was accepted by the Admin, Physcian in Charge, Pathologist, Medical Technologists, Blood Donors, and Blood Seekers in terms of Effectiveness which has a total mean of 4.14 and interpreted as “Satisfied”, Efficiency which has a total mean of 4.44 and interpreted as “Very Satisfied”, Quality which has a total mean of 4.21 and interpreted as “Very Satisfied”, Timeliness which has a total mean of 4.08 and interpreted as “Satisfied” and finally Productivity which has a total mean of 4.23 and

interpreted as “Very Satisfied” the Overall Result was 4.23 and the Interpretation is “Very Satisfied”.

Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendation were given:

1.To address the issue on Implementation the proponents recommended that the users will be trained about the functionalities, the features, and the processes of the system.

  1. Maximum participation of the Employee for the implementation of this system for further development, more perspective and New information.

3.The Philippine National Red Cross Blood Bank management system is recommended to have a Mobile Application for faster processing, Handy, and Instant Online,Offlice Access anywhere.

Credits

Al-Hameli Whalid, P

Maksilywecz Lyka Mae, M

Rodriguez David Emmanuel, G

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