The Problem And Its Background
This chapter presents the introduction, background of the study, conceptual framework, objectives of the study, scope and limitation of the study, and also the definition of terms used in the study.
The rapid growth of technology has contributed a lot to the continuous progress of all classes of industry. However, some sectors today seem to be left behind in adapting the use of different methods to allow progress on their part. Nowadays, business people define the applications and problems to be solved by the computer. Unfortunately, this potential has not been fully recognized or even adequately realized in some business. It is because users may not fully understand the capabilities and limitations of modern computer technology.
Without us noticing it, our world has been innovated by technology in all possible ways this millennium. People have been replaced by robots, tasks have been made easier by different software, and newly developed technologies have been updated even before it has been introduced to most of the world, and much more, faster than our imagination could catch. These innovations aim to better utilize the existing resources and maximize their uses to be able to bring out new or better products or results.
Computers have been used by different institutions to improve their services like enrollment in every school. In terms of accessibility and convenience, computerized system has been proven to be of great help to citizens, employee, students, teachers and even parents.
The computerized world is a highly efficient one, which processing the big quantities of data and keeping. The extensive records will not be a problem to a post industrialized society, likewise the unreliable and slow processing and preparing citizen profiles and certificates.
Management Information Systems are far more sophisticated these days. We have come to rely on computers for more and more aspects of our lives, and certainly for most business operations1, it also improves employee productivity since the employees are more productive because they don’t have to spend time gathering the data that management wants2.
Background Of The Study
Computerization is a control system that manages processes in the industrial workplace. It reduces human errors and processing time; thus, it can boost productivity and result in a high quality of production. This can result in a system well integrated process that can perform much faster and more accurate than the manual system.
This study focuses on the development of Management Information System for Barangay Calahan, Cardona, Rizal. Talking about the advantages help for the awareness on the ability of Management Information System
This study’s main concern is to perform an appropriate method and, in that way, it would be more efficient and reliable
The Computerized Barangay Information System is appropriate for use of barangay employees, who have access to profile information of barangay residents for the direct reports. Moreover, departmental organizational staffs which have a business need for this information for their business unit can also benefit. This is responsible for an effective and efficient approach for barangay employees and residents. It will help them accomplish tasks faster and would also eliminate the need of a large staff. It will provide profile-based information for residents.
Thus, the researchers will propose Management Information System for Barangay Calahan, Cardona Rizal that will give safer storage, fast retrieval of files, maintains reliability and accuracy, and faster tracking of the files. Proposing software for the records is very useful to the staff, from hand written records and manual issuing of barangay clearance, certificates and another barangay issuance.
According to Nestor (2016) 3, barangay represent the government at the grass root level. They are considered the epitome of what the government can offer and are the court of first help of the general populace.
Henczel (n.d.) calls this as information audit, focusing on the information sources, resources, show and how information contributes to the objectives of an organization like barangay. This study is the solution to the problems stated and toenhance the quality of service a barangay office offers to its clients. Furthermore, this serves as an awakening factor for all government offices, from highest to lowest levels, to be in line with the government’s view of globalization and competitiveness in today’s information age4
As studied by Algara (2015) on Barangay Resident Record Management and Certificate Issuance System it stated that this study focuses on the records management system of the said Barangay. The Barangay treasurer/secretary is the one who performs permits, certificates transactions community tax, business taxes, and other fees. They are also in charge of keeping tracks of the records, capture and maintain up-to-date records of all issuance transactions and daily, monthly, yearly reports. They manually handled transactions daily; specially get Barangay clearance, certification, cedula and permits. Before the accomplishment of the task the constituents who request must undergo a long process. Same through with storing of files, updating, accessing of data and recording the expenses, they used folders and log of papers for its storage. The staff encountered difficulties and long procedure in retrieving and recording file5.
6TalentMagnifier (2017) analyzed that, Management Information system is very important for decision-making in professional and personal life. For the functioning of organizational decision-making is important. Today there is a cut-throat competition and it is imperative to take effective decisions for that manager needs accurate information to beat the competition. MIS facilitates the better flow of information. MIS is implemented at all levels of the organization. Collection of data, processing of information and controlling of information is done by the MIS applications. MIS is needed for the functioning role, for performance role, and for support.
As mentioned by Sakthievel (2014) , The Management Information System (MIS) plays exactly the same role in the organization. The system ensures that an appropriate data is collected from the various sources, processed and send further to all the needy destinations. The system is expected to fulfill the information needs of an individual, a group of individuals, the management functionaries: the managers and top management7.
AWonderWorldBlog (2005) indicated that a Computer Information Service represents a giant leap in computerized system of barangay transactions and records handling. They can provide up-to-date information with relatively little effort on the part of the user and put a huge amount of information within easy, convenient and comfortable reach. Not mentioning the security and integrity of the transactions and of the documents it also provides8.
This study aims to present possible solution to the problems stated and to enhance the quality of service a barangay office offers to its clients. Furthermore, this serves as an awakening factor for all government offices, from highest to lowest levels, to be in-line with the government’s view of globalization and competitiveness in today’s Information Age.
According to Lado et al., (2017)9 computerized barangay information system is appropriate for use of barangay employees, who have access to profile of barangay residents for the direct reports. Moreover, departmental organizational staffs which have a business need for this information for their business unit can also benefit. This is responsible for an effective and efficient approach for barangay employees and residents. It well helps them accomplish task faster and would also eliminate the need of a large staff. It will provide profile-based information for residents
In broad strokes this article adumbrates some issues in Filipino virtual communities and social interactions mediated by information technology (IT). Problems and prospects are explored with the optic of the barangay, a social unit that evolved from the pre-Spanish `boat community to its present dominant geo-political form. While IT tends to be instrumental in Western hegemonic encroachment into the Filipino lifeworld, some of its libertarian potentials are gaining ground in emerging cyber-barangays which require new `focal things and practices.’ The emerging Filipino communities mediated by IT are spheres of localization amid globalization and questions of nationhood. The article also proposes to `Filipinize’ IT – that is, to creatively and critically appropriate IT into practices congenial to Filipino culture. The Information Site on Philippine Politics and Government (2003)10.
Francesca Tessarollo (2010) in her study revealed that a good information system is significant for the proper functioning of every organization. Nowadays, organizations have to manage many data and pieces of information and have to meet the needs of the market in an increasingly precise and fast way. To do all this in the best possible way, companies need an efficient information system. To organize and manage the data and information the organization must have a good information system. The data and information must be accessible timely, and every time the users need it. In this way, the users or employees in the organization can have access to the information needed in real time and can make a decision in a fast way11.
- G. Mirasol also stated that Barangay Management Information System is an advance and automated process of managing a barangay to let go the manual process in the usual barangay hall such as hand written documents, keeping records inside the drawer that tends to lose some records. It is automated in such way that all records and transactions that the barangay is needed will be totally organized, easy to process and fast12.
According to Jennifer Rowley (2005)13. information system is a tool to support information management information systems are increasingly being used in organizations with the objective of providing competitive advantage. The information system used by organizations can be grouped into different types such as transaction processing system management information system decision support system executive information system expert systems and office information system information technology has heralded the advent of the information society, the information society may be a virtual society, the concepts of the electronic classroom the electronic office and electronic library have been explored, information system poses a number of issues on society in general including changing employment patterns archiving and bibliographic control security and data protection intellectual property marketplace issues
As studied by Shwetadhuri (2015) Information system is regarded as a tool to provide various services to different management functions. The tools have been developing year by year and the application of the tool has become more and more diverse. In management it is now a very power means to manage and control various activities and decision making, process access14.
15According to Bert Markgraf (2019) To gain the maximum benefits from your company’s information system, you have to exploit all its capacities. Information systems gain their importance by processing the data from company inputs to generate information that is useful for managing your operations. To increase the information system’s effectiveness, you can either add more data to make the information more accurate or use the information in new ways.
16As stated by Kettl (2002) With e-governance, this could be achieved by providing information about frontline services such as those for securing civil registry documents, licenses and permits, or better yet, by giving the public a way by which they can apply for these services with just a click of their mouse. At the very least, local governments could post the procedures detailing the fees and requirements, the city hall department assigned, and the turnaround time. Posting forms that clients could download would eliminate the tediousness of physically going to the city hall to secure them. For the city hall staff, these could help accelerate their response to client request in contrast with Schware (2000)17 noted that making government procedures more transparent reduces the ability of brokers, middlemen, or public officials to extract payments in return for information or expedited service. Additionally, the publication of employment notices does not only serve the purpose of expanding the options available to citizens and assisting them to improve their lives
(Krishna, Walsan 2005, Bhatnagar 2002)18 in their study revealed that Electronic government (e-government) was often heralded as the new way forward for the public sector in both developed and developing countries. There are several examples of how this form of government leads to increased rated of development and allows for greater democracy, and how it was successfully implemented in developing countries.
Bhatnagar (2004)19 stated that E-Government remains a knowledge field in its exploratory stages and is consequently, difficult to accurately define. Furthermore, it encompasses such a broad spectrum that is hard to find one expression that specifies what e-Government represents. However, the term is loosely used to describe the legacy of information and communication technology within the public sector and shows the use of Internet to deliver information and services to the government in contrast to the World Bank website (2005)20, e-government was defined as: “information technologies that have the ability to transform relations with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government can serve a variety of different ends: better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more efficient government management benefits can be less corruption, increased transparency, greater convenience, revenue growth, and/or cost reductions.”
Ciborra (2005)21 uses a framework when describing the use of e-government in developing countries; where the focus of technology is the ordering of the relationship between the administration and the citizen, in setting the boundaries between the state and the market, and in ensuring of greater accountability and transparency. He said that this is often the reason for developing countries to partake in e-government projects, as having such a system is believed to equate to models of ‘good governance’ and increased development, and hence affects the levels of aid that they receive from wealthy nations.
Jaeger and Thompson (2003) 22 assert that an e-government system would fail if the government did not take an active role in educating citizens about the value of e-government. Although speaking from the context of a developed country, one can envisage how this situation was aggravated in developing countries where more often than not, literacy rates are low and educational institutions are lacking.
23Odedra-Straub (2003) states that developing countries have severe limitations regarding connectivity, and the underlying presence of user access required to partake in processes of a market society. Thus we can infer that e-government would probably fail if the users did not have the ability to use the technology to enable access to useful information and services. This lead to a little user base, as the system would not be equally accessible to all citizens.
The input-process-output diagram includes all of the information required for the process of system, details of the process and handled this stage. The specific relationship between the researchers and client are also to be discussed of all model.
The input presents the information gathered from reference books, thesis, internet and related studies in computer are considered to be the input phase since those are the ones involved and the main concept of the study.
The second frame which is the process involves the gathering of data for the system for the hard coding to present the system and to test it as well
The third frame includes the result of the application and the analyzation process of Management Information System of Barangay Calahan, Cardona Rizal
The feedbacks that connect the output to the input reveal that whatever the findings will be. It is reflected in the input and output.
As the Figure 1 shows, the input method and process requirements are needed in order to create this system, after the researchers gathered all the needed requirements the Management Information System of Barangay Calahan,Cardona Rizal will be developed and evaluated
The study will be based from systems engineering’s Systems Approach based from Coombs. This approach is appropriate for product development and innovations where input, process and output were evaluated and re-evaluated to refine each procedure or steps in the conduct of the study. The feedback refines the process, adjusts the inputs and innovates the product.
This system approach is the framework model used as the guiding principle in the study. The IPO (input, process and output) model was applied. The model consists of 3 frames and as lines and arrows detailed the specific steps from assessing the materials, following the basic steps and protocol needed in the conduct of the study, the product development and evaluation.
Objectives Of The Study
The general objective of the study was to developed a Management Information System for Barangay Calahan Cardona, Rizal
Specifically, it aims to develop citizen information that will lessen the possible errors in searching the particular citizen information and it can generate automatic Barangay Certificates, lessening the time required on requesting certificates and more accurate information of the requestor. Effective immediately, ensure to keep the data secured.
This study also aims to help the employee inside the Barangay Hall of Calahan Cardona, Rizal to be more efficient on their work to lessen human error and balance the time and to be able to sustain the certifications that the whole barangay needed in most efficient manner.
Scope And Limitation
The study will focus in Management Information System of Brgy. Calahan, Cardona Rizal wherein the researchers aim to perform an appropriate method which is the concept of Database
This study will be conducted at the Barangay in Calahan Cardona Rizal since this is the place that the researchers aim for the research to took in place as well the information can be collected and accessible on the Barangay Hall.
The Barangay of Calahan is still facing some problems, collecting information by using surveys and interview can help and influence the computerized system that we will develop.
All the information needed will be collected from the residents or citizens of barangay as well as the Barangay Officials for future purpose in building the system. The System Software that will be made is only be made exclusive for the Barangay Officials to avoid data breaching, changes and data theft
Thus, this will help the community that have difficulties in issuing and keeping their data secured.
Significance Of The Study
The significance of the study is very timely for wherein technology is getting bigger and in demand. The proposed system will have a significant effect on both the residents of the barangay and barangay employees who manage the system as well as the barangay itself. The implementation of the system will change the methods and process that the barangay is accustomed to for keeping their files. This will also ensure that all the records will be intact and updated. The barangay will also be assured that the file will be protected and safe for it will require authorization before someone can access the system.
The one who manages the files and information of the barangay for it will bring easy access to the data they need.
It will be easy for them to access their records if there are some changes to be done on their part.
The ideas presented may be used as a reference data in conducting new research.
In order to increase the personal knowledge of problem solving and contributing to that of humanity, developing skills and interests in programming.